The majority (70% to 80%) of hospitalized patients require the placement of a vascular access device for intravenous therapy (Alexandrou et al., 2012; Zingg & Pittet, 2009). Peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters allow venous system access for the infusion of fluids, medication, blood, or blood products (Hagle & Mikell, 2014). PIV catheter placement is one of the most frequent invasive skills performed by nurses working in hospitals (Ravik et al., 2017). Accurate placement and management of PIV catheters require significant knowledge, skill, and clinical judgement to reduce PIV-associated risks. If not managed correctly, PIV complications such as
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